Operating Functions

Windows and doors operate in much the same way. Both windows and doors are used for egress, ventilation, natural lighting, weather protection, etc... While certain operating methods function better than others for specific requirements, swing characteristics are interchangeable.

Operating functions can be combined for unique situations. For example, a single or double hung window can be made to open as a casement, awning or hopper. Some European hardware allows combination movements such as tilt and turn or slide and tilt. Sliding or hung units may include wall pockets for increased opening area.

All operating functions require specific engineering and hardware applications that limit the size and shape of a unit or restrict the movement in some way. For example, large outswing casements are provided with swing range limiting devices to protect the hardware from wind shear. For more information on hardware, refer to the Hardware Specification section.

The following listing indicates many of the operating functions available for both windows and doors.



AWNING: Swings in & up or out & up with hinges mounted at the sides or the top.

CASEMENT: Swings in or out to the left or right. Hinges are mounted at the sides (i.e.. door butt hinges) or the top and bottom (i.e.. concealed egress).


DUTCH: Generally, Dutch windows and doors are a pair of casements setup one on top of the other with an interlocking center rail.


FIXED: As the name implies, Fixed Units do not move and can be inset or outset within the jamb.

FOLDING: Often referred to as Bi-FOLD, these units are hinged at the sides and often include head and sill track systems. Some folding operations can slide too.


GARAGE: Usually three separate folding leaves typical to commonly used garage doors. Large pivot operators are also available for single leaf doors.


HOPPER: Swing direction is in & up or out & up, opposite of the Awning operation. Outswing hoppers are generally not recommended in areas that are exposed to the weather.


HUNG SASH: Single, Double, Triple & with Pockets. The Double Hung Weight & Pulley balance system is one of the oldest operating methods used in the United States. Clockspring counter balances can be used where there is not enough room for weight pockets. Vinyl Spring Balances are low budget alternatives and are often not capable of handling double, triple, pocket, arched, large or heavy units.


PAIRS: Usually a left and right hand casement closing together at a common side with an astragal interlock. Usually the common side is a vertical framing member and the swing direction can be in or out. Also, when Pairs are specified, a primary and secondary leaf must be determined. There is no Mullion between Pairs.


PIVOT: As the name implies, the unit Pivots on either a centered or off centered axis that can be vertical, horizontal or at some angle in between.


POCKET: Sliding units include a slide pocket built into the adjacent building frame. Pockets can be above, on both or either side of single and multiple units. Often used for interior applications.


SLIDERS: Single units with pockets, single units with fixed sidelites or sliding multiples in a variety of configurations are included. Generally, the letter 0 designates the Operable Leaf and the letter X desig- nates the Fixed Leaf. Variations include; XO, XOX, XOO, OOO, XOOX, OOOO, etc..


SKYLIGHTS: Both operable and fixed operations are available. Operable units are usually single sash. Fixed units can be spherical or pyramids.


STORMS, SCREENS & SHUTTERS: While the operation of these units are not restricted, they are usually attached with simple hooks or hinges in a Casement or Awning fashion.


Tilt and Turn

TILT & TURN: These units include combination movements. Usually swinging in to left or right or tilting in at the top depending upon the direction the operating handle is turned. Pairs are also available without mullions. Usually, however, only one leaf of a pair can have the dual action.

Design Features | CSI Specifications


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